Keltic Seafaring
Keltic Seafaring

Numerous scholastics can't deal with the chance of boats that ventured to every part of the seas as some time in the past as the Franchithi Caves dig that showed 13,000 B.C. local area fishing armadas. It even was hard for most to acknowledge the Kelts at the hour of Caesar had this innovation around then regardless of the expressions of Caesar. Certain individuals think information once acquired is never lost yet that is nowhere near evident. Barry Fell was a Harvard Professor of Oceanography before he got the bug to uncover reality. Some (Like Wiseman in Archeology Magazine of 'Camelot in Kentucky' article from 2001) scorn Fell as "self-trained" in issues like Ogham. Truly, Fell took one of the main little courses accessible at the time from Edinburgh University. Who can truly gain reality from scholastics that conceal it? His name was made soil by scholastics yet his inheritance from America B.C and Bronze Age America has been sweet justification.

Here is a tad bit of the narrative of his struggles, which is introduced for more explanation tilt bucket for mini excavator than simply the undeniable need to support on the presence and loss of Keltic seacraft innovation. The ascent and fall of Celtic ocean power has been unusually dismissed {Although the film 'Spartacus' shows Kirk Douglas organizing section to Italy from the Kelts[Silesians and Galatians are Kelts back to the hour of Punt] who administered the Sea.} by most history specialists and archeologists as to provoke a lot of wariness when first I started to report Celtic engraving in America. 'I can't say I've heard that the Celts were sailors,' was an ordinary remark. The people who review that Julius Caesar depicted the Britons as for the most part exposed savages, wearing just iron forces about their necks, {A torquetum or tanawa is an old sextant known to have existed in this period as Maui explored for a notable Greek and had the option to work out longitude.} at times with the skin of a monster cast over the shoulders, consider the Britons having nothing better compared to limited coracles for crossing water.

Nothing could be further from reality. As a matter of fact, the majority of Book III of Caesar's 'De Bello Gallico' is committed to the best maritime fight he was at any point called upon to mount. Furthermore, his foes? In all honesty, the Celts of Brittany, whose armada was expanded by the appearance of a flotilla they had called from their partners in Britain! The consolidated Gallic and British maritime weapon contained a hugely strong power, numbering, so Caesar tells us, something like 220 boats, all bigger than and better in development than those of the restricting Roman naval force under Admiral Brutus. According to these Celtic boats, Caesar, were so sufficiently built that they could outride stormy or opposite breezes upon the very sea itself without supporting injury ('De Bello Gallico', books III,XIII,I.). Obviously these fine vessels, which overshadowed the Roman galleys, had the capacity of crossing the Atlantic Ocean 'vasto atque aperto mari', "upon the immense untamed ocean," as Caesar indicates."(2)

Does it enter your thoughts that these boats were as a matter of fact utilized in such journeys to the Americas? Why had Caesar never seen their like? The breeze went down and the Roman galleys tossed catching guides into the Celtic gear and sails then boarded them. Caesar made an arrangement (similar to his wont) with the cousins of his precursors who were not in charge of all. He gave them full citizenship of Rome, which they truth be told had laid out subsequent to overcoming the Tarquin lords of Etruria. Consequently the idea of Catholicism and the Anglican church has a notorious past relationship, as they prohibited the Druids and put an abundance on their heads. Could you at any point see the reason why we figure the Toltecs or others in America could have Druidic roots? There could be no further notice of British or Gaulish maritime vessels in Caesar's discourses, nor does Tacitus in the century that followed give any space or thought to local maritime may. It appears to be that the fight against the Veneti was the finish of Celtic ocean power in old style times. Aside from the intermittent combativeness by British bosses like Queen Boadicaea.

NORMAN TOTTEN: - "The Eye of God and the Agricultural Grid

By Norman Totten

Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts

Impulse for this sort of examination was the need to comprehend the "atna-kuna" theme so pervasive in Celtic New England and Iberia, and regularly connected with the "eye of Bel". James Whittall has been finding instances of it in Portugal and Spain. Fell, Dix, and Oedel have as of late distributed perceptions about it.

This show is restricted to what is by all accounts the two dominating representative types of the sun and earth in antiquated engravings - - the eye of the sun god and the developed field matrix. Both have happened in various assortments, outwardly and phonetically. This paper ought to be perused as an advancement report, fragmented in its thought and fairly speculative in its determinations with respect to an immense and complex issue.

I. Morphology and Dissemination: Eye of the Sun

However he later quibbled about which bearing the development had happened, Sir Arthur Evans (1984, p. 303) put forward the fundamental types of the eye of Ra - - from one complete with lashes (beams) to a circle (student) encasing a more modest circle or spot (iris)." (6)

This means a lot to grasping the overall societies and the world class corporate merchants. The circle with a speck is the Mark of Qayin or Cain (Gardner's Genesis of the Grail Kings and different sources) and as such it is the proficient cartouche or connoting token for the group of Jesus and the 'curve tectons' (Septuagint) of the Great Pyramid.

In 'Bel' we have the Keltic God as well as the Mesopotamian (later) God. To track down them so firmly related or associated in the Iberias that currently convey names like Spain, Ireland and North America adds an extraordinary extra hint to the Tartessian (wellspring of the 'Scriptural Ships of Tarshis') destinations being uncovered or concentrated on in Anatolia and Portugal. They all beginning with Iberia in the Caspian and the Black Sea locale that is the hereditary country of the Kelts a long time back. Since we can hereditarily and forensically follow and follow these individuals and wed them to dateable relics we have a tenable history untainted by royal or religious power mongers.

Another ESOP selection from crafted by Totten manages Moroccan monastics banished to America in the fifth Century AD. "In Figuig the priests were lone (monachos), yet in shared life (Koinos Bios) of siblings (fratres), a friary. Their type of affirming (martyrium) under mistreatment was not demise in that frame of mind for the delight of agnostic onlookers however exile, exile to the wild of America." (7)

Earthenware HEAD OF A ROMAN IN MEXICO: - "This year, Scandinavians praise the a long time since Leif Ericsson cruised to the New World from Greenland. Bjarni Herjolfsson was evidently quick to step aground on the New World. Antiquarians have long accepted that Ericsson's settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, on the northern-most tip of Newfoundland, addressed the primary proof of Europeans on the mainland {When Farley Mowat expounded on it in 'Westviking' he was ridiculed.}. In any case, a wide assortment of archeological proof focuses to prior contact.

A dark earthenware top of a whiskery man, around 2 in (5cm) tall, found in the Toluca Valley around 40 miles (64km) west of Mexico City in 1933 and dated by thermoluminescence to around 200 AD, could be the principal dependable proof that Roman mariners arrived at America. It is different in style from some other known pre-Columbian craftsmanship and has been distinguished as Roman by workmanship specialists. Albeit a lot was expounded on the head since its disclosure, its whereabouts were obscure until 1994, when it was found locked away in a Mexico City exhibition hall by a US anthropologist properly named Dr Roman Hristov.

A survey of the conditions encompassing the head's disclosure affirmed it was set in its cemetery no later than 1510 - 10 years before the Spanish showed up in Meso-America. Critically, the head was uncovered from the site by experts, said David Kelley, a prehistorian at the University of Calgary, in Alberta {Professor Emeritus} Canada. 'This was fixed under three stories, it's as near archeological conviction as you can get.' {Emphasis and N.B.}

Classicist David Grove, of the University of Illinois, concurred that the head was Roman, however brought up that there was no proof of Roman effect on pre-Columbian societies. He recommended that the head might have been washed shorewards from a Roman wreck in the Gulf of Mexico. All things considered, there appears to be no rejecting that Roman mariners had arrived at American waters. 'Old Mesoamerica, v.10, p.207; Scotsman, Guardian, D. Mail, 10 Feb; New Scientist, 12 Feb 2000.'

Mark McManamin, teacher of topography and geography at Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, is persuaded that the Carthaginians found America somewhere in the range of 350 and 320 BC. In a new issue of 'The Numismatic' magazine, and at a gathering of the American Friends of Tunisia Association in May 1999, he deciphered a progression of baffling gold coins of that period as portrayals of the well explored parts of the planet, including a body of land toward the west of Spain. Specialists on old shipping lanes accept that the Carthaginians more likely than not arrived at the bank of Brazil, where Punic amphorae (containing olive oil and wine) have been found; and Punic coins of the fourth century BC have been uncovered at seven destinations in the eastern United States, tragically not determined in our source ('Jeune Afrique', Paris,7, 1 Sept 1999).

As per the Xinhua Chinese press office last August, likenesses between almost 300 markings found on ceramics, jade and stone at vague old local destinations in focal America intently look like 3,000-year-old Shang tradition characters for the sun, sky, downpour, water, yields, trees and stars recorded on creature bones or turtle shells, known as Jiaguwen. American and Chinese pictographs in 56 matching sets were displayed to senior scholastics at a conference in Anyang, previous capital

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